Chemistry3

Introducing Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry

Third Edition

Andrew Burrows, John Holman, Andrew Parsons, Gwen Pilling, Gareth Price

Chemistry3

Introducing Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry

Third Edition

Andrew Burrows, John Holman, Andrew Parsons, Gwen Pilling, Gareth Price

ISBN:

9780198733805

Binding:

Paperback

Published:

31 Mar 2017

Availability:

426

Series:

$105.95 AUD

$121.99 NZD

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Description

Chemistry is widely considered to be the central science: it encompasses concepts from which other branches of science are developed. Yet, for many students entering university, gaining a firm grounding in chemistry is a real challenge. Chemistry³ responds to this challenge, providing students with a full understanding of the fundamental principles of chemistry on which to build later studies.

Uniquely amongst the introductory chemistry texts currently available, Chemistry³ is written by a team of chemists to give equal coverage of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry - coverage that is uniformly authoritative. The approach to organic chemistry is mechanistic, rather than the old-fashioned 'functional group' approach, to help students achieve a fuller understanding of the underlying principles.

The expertise of the author team is complemented by two specialists in chemistry education, who bring to the book a wealth of experience of teaching chemistry in a way that students enjoy and understand, and who understand the challenges of the transition from school to university. The result is a text that builds on what students know already from school and tackles their misunderstandings and misconceptions, thereby providing a seamless transition from school to undergraduate study.

The authors achieve unrivalled accessibility through the provision of carefully-worded explanations and reminders of students' existing knowledge; the introduction of concepts in a logical and progressive manner; and the use of annotated diagrams and step-by-step worked examples. Students are encouraged to engage with the text and appreciate the central role that chemistry plays in our lives through the unique use of real-world context and photographs.

Chemistry³ tackles head-on two issues pervading chemistry education: students' mathematical skills, and their ability to see the subject as a single, unified discipline. Instead of avoiding the maths, Chemistry³ provides structured support, in the form of careful explanations, reminders of key mathematical concepts, step-by-step calculations in worked examples, and a Maths Toolkit, to help students get to grips with the essential mathematical element of chemistry. Frequent cross-references highlight the connections between each strand of chemistry and explain the relationship between the topics, so students can develop an understanding of the subject as a whole.

Contents

A message to readers
Getting the most from Chemistry3
Acknowledgements

1 Fundamentals
What do chemists do?
1.1 Chemistry: the central science
1.2 Measurement, units, and nomenclature
1.3 Atoms and the mole
1.4 Chemical equations
1.5 Working out how much you have
1.6 Energy changes in chemical reactions
1.7 States of matter and phase changes
1.8 Non-covalent interactions
1.9 Chemical equilibrium: how far has a reaction gone?

2 The language of organic chemistry
Designer medicines for treating high blood pressure: an ACE approach
2.1 Why are organic compounds important?
2.2 Drawing organic compounds
2.3 Carbon frameworks and functional groups
2.4 Naming organic compounds
2.5 Hydrocarbons
2.6 Functional groups containing one or more heteroatoms
2.7 Functional groups containing carbonyl groups
2.8 Naming compounds with more than one functional group

3 Atomic structure and properties
Imaging atoms
3.1 The classical picture of the atom
3.2 Electromagnetic radiation and quantization
3.3 Atomic spectra and the Bohr atom
3.4 The nature of the electron
3.5 Wavefunctions and atomic orbitals
3.6 Many-electron atoms
3.7 Atomic properties and periodicity
3.8 Nuclear chemistry

4 Diatomic molecules
Molecules in space
4.2 The Lewis model
4.3 Electronegativity
4.4 Valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory
4.5 Valence bond theory
4.6 Molecular orbital theory
4.7 Molecular orbitals in hydrogen (H2)
4.8 Molecular orbital energy level diagrams
4.9 Linear combinations of p orbitals
4.10 Bonding in fluorine (F2) and oxygen (O2)
4.11 s–p mixing
4.12 Heteronuclear diatomics

5 Polyatomic molecules
Xenon compounds
5.1 The Lewis model
5.2 Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
5.3 Bond polarity and polar molecules
5.4 Valence bond theory for polyatomic molecules
5.5 Resonance
5.6 A molecular orbital approach to the bonding in polyatomic molecules
5.7 Partial molecular orbital schemes

6 Solids
Zeolites
6.1 Covalent network structures
Box 6.1 Graphene, nanotubes, and nanotechnology
Box 6.2 Superconductors
6.2 Structures based on the packing of spheres
6.3 Metallic bonding
Box 6.3 CD writers and re-writers
6.4 Structures of compounds
Box 6.4 X-ray crystallography
Box 6.5 Self-cleaning windows
6.5 The ionic model
6.6 Calculating lattice energy
Box 6.6 Determining the Madelung constant
6.7 Predicting bond types

7 Acids and bases
Acids and bases in the garden
7.1 Brønsted–Lowry acids and bases
7.2 The strengths of acids and bases
7.3 Buffer solutions
7.4 pH changes in acid–base titrations
7.5 Indicators
7.6 Oxoacids
7.7 Acidic and basic oxides
7.8 Lewis acids and bases

8 Gases
Breathing under water
8.1 The gas laws: an empirical approach
8.2 Using the ideal gas equation
8.3 Mixtures of gases
8.4 Kinetic molecular theory and the gas laws
8.5 The speeds of molecules in a gas
8.6 Real gases

9 Reaction kinetics
Methane in the troposphere
9.1 Why study reaction kinetics?
9.2 What is meant by the rate of a reaction?
9.3 Monitoring the progress of a reaction
9.4 Elementary reactions
9.5 Complex reactions: experimental methods
9.6 Complex reactions: reaction mechanisms
9.7 Effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction
9.8 Theories of reactions
9.9 Catalysis

10 Molecular spectroscopy
Searching for life on Mars
10.1 Introduction to molecular spectroscopy
10.2 Molecular energies and spectroscopy
10.3 General principles of spectroscopy
10.4 Rotational spectroscopy
10.5 Vibrational spectroscopy
10.6 Electronic spectroscopy
10.7 Spin resonance spectroscopy

11 Analytical chemistry
Drugs and the Olympics
11.1 Carrying out an analysis
11.2 Electrochemical methods of analysis
11.3 Chromatography
11.4 Spectroscopic methods of analysis
11.5 Atomic spectrometry

12 Molecular characterization
Using isotope ratios to analyse orange juice
12.1 Mass spectrometry
12.2 Infrared spectroscopy
12.3 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
12.4 Structure determination using a combination of techniques

13 Energy and thermochemistry
Launching the Space Shuttle
13.1 Energy changes in chemistry: heat and work
13.2 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes
13.3 Enthalpy changes in chemical reactions
13.4 Variation of enthalpy with temperature
13.5 Internal energy and the First Law of thermodynamics
13.6 Measuring energy changes

14 Entropy and Gibbs energy
Protein folding
14.1 What are spontaneous processes?
14.2 Entropy and the Second Law of thermodynamics
14.3 The Third Law and absolute entropies
14.4 Entropy changes in chemical reactions
14.5 Gibbs energy
14.6 Variation of Gibbs energy with conditions

15 Chemical equilibrium
Equilibria in the oceans
15.1 Gibbs energy and equilibrium
15.2 The direction of a reaction: the reaction quotient
15.3 Gibbs energy and equilibrium constants
15.4 Calculating the composition of a reaction at equilibrium
15.5 Effect of conditions on reaction yields and K
15.6 Applying the thermodynamics in Chapters 13, 14, and 15

16 Electrochemistry
Electrical energy on the move
16.1 What is electrochemistry?
16.2 Ions in solution
16.3 Electrochemical cells
16.4 Thermodynamics of electrochemical cells
16.5 Electrolysis

17 Phase equilibrium and solutions
Supercritical fluids
17.1 Phase behaviour of single components
17.2 Quantitative treatment of phase transitions
17.3 Intermolecular interactions
17.4 Phase behaviour in two-component systems

18 Isomerism and stereochemistry
Bitter isomers in beer
18.1 Isomerism
18.2 Conformational isomers
18.3 Configurational isomers: E- and Z-isomers
18.4 Configurational isomers: isomers with chiral centres

19 Organic reaction mechanisms
Antidotes for nerve agents
Box 19.1 The birth of organic reaction mechanisms
19.1 Fundamental concepts of organic reaction mechanisms
19.2 Classification of organic reaction mechanisms
19.3 Reaction selectivity

20 Halogenoalkanes: substitution and elimination reactions
Alternative pesticides to bromomethane
20.1 Structure and reactivity of halogenoalkanes
20.2 Preparation of halogenoalkanes
20.3 The mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution reactions
20.4 The mechanisms of elimination reactions
20.5 Substitution versus elimination reactions

21 Alkenes and alkynes:electrophilic addition and pericyclic reactions
The citric acid cycle
21.1 Structure and reactivity of alkenes and alkynes
21.2 Preparation of alkenes and alkynes
21.3 Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes
21.4 Pericyclic reactions of alkenes
21.5 Electrophilic addition reactions of alkynes

22 Benzene and other aromatic compounds: electrophilic substitution reactions
Azo dyes: the start of the rainbow
22.1 The structure of benzene and other aromatic compounds
22.2 Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene
22.3 Reactivity of substituted benzenes in electrophilic substitutions
22.4 The synthesis of substituted benzenes

23 Aldehydes and ketones: nucleophilic addition and α-substitution reactions
Rhodopsin and vision
23.1 The structure and reactions of aldehydes and ketones
23.2 Nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones
23.3 α-Substitution reactions of aldehydes and ketones
23.4 Carbonyl–carbonyl condensation reactions

24 Carboxylic acids and derivatives: nucleophilic acyl substitution and α-substitution reactions
PET plastics
24.1 Structure and reactions of carboxylic acids and derivatives
24.2 Nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions
24.3 α-Substitution and carbonyl–carbonyl condensation reactions

25 Hydrogen
The planet Jupiter
25.1 Elemental hydrogen
25.2 Compounds of hydrogen
25.3 Hydrogen bonding
25.4 Isotope effects

26 s-Block chemistry
Biominerals
26.1 The Group 1 elements
26.2 Group 1 compounds
Box 26.1 Why is sodium peroxide more stable to heating than lithium peroxide?
26.3 Group 1 ions in solution
26.4 Group 1 coordination chemistry
26.5 Reaction of Group 1 metals with liquid ammonia
26.6 The Group 2 elements
26.7 Group 2 compounds
26.8 Group 2 coordination chemistry
26.9 Lithium and beryllium as exceptional elements
26.10 Organometallic compounds
26.11 Diagonal relationships

27 p-Block chemistry
Photochemical smog
27.1 General aspects and trends in the p block
27.2 Group 13: boron, aluminium, gallium, indium,and thallium
27.3 Group 14: carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead
27.4 Group 15: nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony,and bismuth
27.5 Group 16: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium,and polonium
27.6 Group 17: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine,and astatine
27.7 Group 18: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon,and radon
27.8 p-Block organometallic chemistry

28 d-Block chemistry
Colouring with metal pigments
28.1 The d-block elements
28.2 Chemistry of the first row d-block elements
28.3 Coordination chemistry
28.4 Crystal field theory
28.5 Filling the d orbitals
28.6 Colour in coordination compounds
28.7 Magnetic properties
28.8 Aqueous chemistry of the first row d-block ions

Maths Toolkit
Appendix

Authors

Andrew Burrows , Department of Chemistry, University of Bath

John Holman , Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of York, President of the Royal Society of Chemistry, University of York

Andrew Parsons , Department of Chemistry, University of York

Gwen Pilling , Formerly of the Science Education Group, University of York

Gareth Price , Department of Chemistry, University of Bath

Professor Andrew Burrows, Department of Chemistry, University of Bath Professor John Holman, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of York, President of the Royal Society of Chemistry Professor Andrew Parsons, Department of Chemistry, University of York Dr Gwen Pilling, Formerly of the Science Education Group, University of York Professor Gareth Price, Department of Chemistry, University of Bath

Reviews

`It is a great textbook for first year courses with really good use of visual aids and excellent provision of worked examples to illustrate the concepts and their applications. It is a perfect transition from A-Level to Higher Education Chemistry.' Dr Rossana Wright, University of Nottingham

`Chemistry3 is the best introductory chemistry textbook currently available. It is well written, excels in clarity of presentation, and is an outstanding book from the student learning perspective. All of the concepts covered are well explained and supported by excellent artwork. This is a book that all first and second year chemistry undergraduates should have.' Dr Gareth Owen, University of South Wales

`This is an exemplar modern chemistry resource with a very rounded pedagogical approach to engaging students and supporting staff in delivering key chemical concepts and supporting facts. It is a one stop shop for mainstream chemistry fundamentals.' Dr Loretta M. Murphy, Bangor University

`A fantastic all-round reference for university-level chemistry. It is a perfect way to bridge between school and university.' Adam Stubbs, student at Newcastle University

`Chemistry3 is the best university chemistry text book for first and second year science students. It is comprehensive and contains all the fundamentals for chemists to know- from analytical to organic chemistry. It is also a student friendly book with tons of pictures and applications of chemistry in the real world.' Christian Nichol J. Geronimo, student at Dublin Institute of Technology

`This material is fantastic and should be used alongside courses. The level of detail is exactly right for undergraduate courses and the colour coding of the boxes for worked examples and summaries make them really easy to find. There are lots of questions for you to have a go at which makes it easy to practice the new skills the book is helping to teach.' Rebecca Snelgrove, student at Keele University

`Plenty of facts and figures are scattered throughout the text which makes reading not solely an educational, but also a fun activity. The examples of real life chemistry applications maintain the connection between theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach provides a broader chemical understanding while not losing the comprehensiveness of the book. In short, a good all-in-one textbook for first-year students in chemistry.' Jelte van der Valk, student at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands

`The topics are very thoroughly explained and are at exactly the right level for the student. There are many great examples illustrating the topics. It is a great book to read and study from as a student starting university. This is definitely a book I would buy, read and return to, when I needed an explanation for some basic chemistry.' Michelle Rasmussen, student at the University of Roskilde, Denmark