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ISBN: 9780195386042

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Progressive Sight Singing

Second Edition

Carol Krueger


A comprehensive, student-centered, and flexible introduction to sight singing, Progressive Sight Singing, Second Edition, by Carol Krueger, presents students with the underlying grammar and syntax of musical structure and prepares them to perceive that structure with both the ear and the eye. Working from the premise that students learn musical skills in much the same order as they do language skills, the book trains the ear first--through hearing and imitating patterns--before teaching students to read and write.

Divided into two parts, the text presents rhythmic exercises in Part I and melodic exercises in Part II. The two sections can be used concurrently over a four-semester course sequence, giving instructors the flexibility to teach at a pace that suits the abilities and backgrounds of a particular class or course schedule.

FEATURES
BL Adds only one new element per chapter and incorporates components from previous chapters into examples and exercises, continuously reinforcing learned skills
BL Integrates a rich variety of well-paced, graduated exercises for classroom study and individual practice outside of class
BL Includes an abundance of rhythmic exercises, eliminating the need for a separate rhythm text
BL Encourages students to participate actively (sing, chant, write, improvise) in the practice of each concept
BL Offers instructors great flexibility in that they can use the tonal and reading systems they prefer; the appendixes provide a brief overview of each system

American Musicological Society and Society for Music Theory meeting, Indianapolis, IN, November 4-7, 2010 College Music Society meeting, Minneapolis, MN, September 23-26, 2010

To the Instructor To the Student An Introduction to the Musical Literacy Process Strategies For Successful Sight Singing Building Musicianship and Independency PART I: RHYTHMIC READING 1. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Undivided Beat 1.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Beat, Tempo, Meter, Duple Meter, Triple Meter, Quadruple Meter, Rhythm 1.2 Symbolic Association Score Notation, Whole Note/Rest, Half Note/Rest, Quarter Note/Rest, Meter Signature, Bar Lines, Double Bar Line 1.3 Rhythm Patterns 1.4 Exercises Canon, Retrograde Canon, Anacrusis, Bracket 2. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Divided Beat 2.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Macro Beat, Micro Beat 2.2 Symbolic Association Motive, Eighth Note/Rest, Flag, Beam 2.3 Rhythm Patterns 2.4 Exercises Common Time 3. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Slur, Tie, and Extension Dot 3.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Tie, Extension Dot/Augmentation Dot, Slur, Legato, Phrase 3.2 Symbolic Association 3.3 Rhythm Patterns 3.4 Exercises 4. Terms and Symbols 4.1 Symbolic Association: Performance Markings Interruptions in the Beat: Breath Mark, Fermata, Tenuto, Caesura, General Pause; Tempo Markings: Adagio, Andante, Moderato, Allegretto, Allegro, Metronome, M.M.; Changes in Tempo: Ritardando, Ritenuto, Accelerando, A Tempo, poco, poco à poco; Dynamic Markings: Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo Piano, Mezzo Forte, Forte, Fortissimo; Changes in Tempo: Crescendo, Decrescendo, Diminuendo; Articulation: Staccato, Accent; Technical Terms: Repeat Sign, First and Second Endings 4.2 Exercises 5. Compound Meter -- Dotted Quarter = Beat Unit; Divided Beat 5.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Simple Meter, Duple Simple, Triple Simple, Quadruple Simple, Compound Meter, Duple Compound, Triple Compound, Quadruple Compound 5.2 Symbolic Association 5.3 Rhythm Patterns 5.4 Exercises 6. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Borrowed Beat Division 6.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Borrowed Division, Triplet, Duplet, Cross-Rhythms 6.2 Symbolic Association 6.3 Rhythm Patterns 6.4 Exercises 7. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Syncopation 7.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Syncopation, Dynamic Accent, Agogic Accent 7.2 Symbolic Association 7.3 Rhythm Patterns 7.4 Exercises 8. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; Subdivided Beat 8.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Beat Subdivision 8.2 Symbolic Association 8.3 Rhythm Patterns 8.4 Exercises 9. More Terms and Symbols 9.1 Symbolic Association: Performance Markings Tempo Markings: Largo, Lento, Vivace, Presto; Changes in Tempo: Rallentando, Rubato, Con Moto, Meno Mosso; Character Terms: Cantabile, Dolce, Maestoso, Con Brio, Agitato; Dynamics: Sforzando, Sforzando-piano, Forte-piano; Articulation: Marcato; Other Terms: Subito, Più, Molto; Technical Terms: Da Capo, Dal Segno, Sign, Fine, Coda 9.2 Exercises 10. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; More Rhythms with Borrowed Beat Division 10.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 10.2 Symbolic Association 10.3 Rhythm Patterns 10.4 Exercises 11. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; More Rhythms with Syncopations 11.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 11.2 Symbolic Association 11.3 Rhythm Patterns 11.4 Exercises 12. Simple Meter -- Quarter Note = Beat Unit; More Rhythms with Subdivided Beat 12.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 12.2 Symbolic Association 12.3 Rhythm Patterns 12.4 Exercises 13. Simple Meter -- Half Note = Beat Unit 13.1 Symbolic Association Alla Breve, Cut Time, Double Whole Note/Rest 13.2 Rhythm Patterns 13.3 Exercises 14. Simple Meter -- Eighth Note = Beat Unit 14.1 Symbolic Association 14.2 Rhythm Patterns 14.3 Exercises 15. Compound Meter -- Dotted Quarter = Beat Unit; More Rhythms 15.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 15.2 Symbolic Association 15.3 Rhythm Patterns 15.4 Exercises 16. Compound Meter -- Dotted Half Note = Beat Unit 16.1 Symbolic Association 16.2 Rhythm Patterns 16.3 Exercises 17. Compound Meter -- Dotted Eighth Note = Beat Unit 17.1 Symbolic Association 17.2 Rhythm Patterns 17.3 Exercises 18. Simple Meter -- Irregular Division of Beat 18.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 18.2 Symbolic Association Triplets, Quintuplets, Sextuplets, Septuplets, Measured Tremolo 18.3 Rhythm Patterns and Exercises: Quarter Note = Beat Unit 18.4 Exercises: Other Simple Meters 19. Compound Meter -- Irregular Division of Beat 19.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills 19.2 Symbolic Association Duplets, Quadruplets, Quintuplets, Septuplets 19.3 Rhythm Patterns and Exercises: Dotted Quarter Note = Beat Unit 19.4 Exercises: Other Compound Meters 20. Hemiola and Cross Rhythms 20.1 Symbolic Association: Hemiola, 2:3, 3:2 Hemiola, Superduplet, Supertriplet 20.2 Exercises: Hemiola, 2:3, 3:2 20.3 Symbolic Association: 3:4, 4:3, 2:5 Superquadruplet 20.4 Exercises: 3:4, 4:3, 2:5 21. Asymmetrical Meters 21.1 Symbolic Association 21.2 Rhythm Patterns and Exercises: Beat Constant 21.3 Rhythm Patterns and Exercises: Beat Division Constant 22. Mixed Meters 22.1 Symbolic Association 22.2 Exercises PART II: MELODIC READING 1. Tonic Pentachord in Major Mode; Simple Meters, Undivided Beat 1.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Steps Pentachord Scale, Intervals, Tonic Triad, Tertian, Root, Third, Fifth, Chord, Harmony, Arpeggio 1.2 Symbolic Association: Diatonic Steps Score Notation, Staff, Line Note, Space Note, Second, Fourth 1.3 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Diatonic Steps 1.4 Exercises: Diatonic Steps 1.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Tonic Triad 1.6 Symbolic Association: Tonic Triad 1.7 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Root, Third, Fifth, Chord, Arpeggio 1.8 Exercises: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Clef Signs, Treble Clef, Bass Clef, Musical Alphabet, Key Signature, Hocket 2. Diatonic Steps and Tonic Triad in the Major Scale; Simple Meters, Undivided Beat 2.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Steps Major Scale, Diatonic, Non-diatonic, Intervals from Tonic, Scale Degrees, Unison, Prime 2.2 Symbolic Association: Diatonic Steps Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant, Submediant, Leading Tone 2.3 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Diatonic Steps 2.4 Exercises: Diatonic Steps Ledger Lines 2.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Half Step, Semi-tone, Whole Step, Inverted Tonic Triads, Intervals of a Fourth 2.6 Symbolic Association: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Major Key Signature, Harmonic Triad, Melodic Triad 2.7 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad 2.8 Exercises: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad 3. Diatonic Steps and Tonic Triad in the Natural Minor Scale; Simple Meters, Undivided Beat 3.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Natural Minor Scale, Tonic Triad, Intervals from Tonic 3.2 Symbolic Association: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad Minor Key Signatures, Subtonic 3.3 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad 3.4 Exercises: Diatonic Steps, Tonic Triad 4. Diatonic Steps and Tonic Triad in the Major Scale; Simple Meters, Divided Beat 4.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major Mode Quality and Quantity of Intervals From Tonic 4.2 Symbolic Association: Major Mode 4.3 Melodic Patterns: Major Mode 4.4 Exercises: Major Mode 5. Diatonic Steps and Tonic Triad in the Major Scale; Simple Meters, Dotted Quarter Notes 5.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major Mode Major and Minor Thirds, Perfect and Augmented Fourths in the Major Scale, Triads Built on Each Scale Degree 5.2 Symbolic Association: Major Mode Motive, Sequence, Phrase, Melodic Cadence, Progressive Cadence, Terminal Cadence, Through-Composed 5.3 Melodic Patterns: Major Mode 5.4 Exercises: Major Mode 6. Natural Minor Scale; Simple Meters, Eighth and Dotted Quarter Notes 6.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Natural Minor Scale Intervals from Tonic; Major and Minor Thirds, Perfect and Augmented Fourths, Triads Built on Each Scale Degree; Major, Minor, and Diminished Triads 6.2 Symbolic Association: Natural Minor Scale 6.3 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Natural Minor Scale 6.4 Exercises: Natural Minor Scale 7. Harmonic and Melodic Minor Scales; Simple Meters, Eighth and Dotted Quarter Notes 7.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Harmonic Minor Scale Intervals from Tonic; Major and Minor Thirds, Perfect and Augmented Fourths, Triads Built on Each Scale Degree, Augmented Triad 7.2 Symbolic Association: Harmonic Minor Scale 7.3 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Harmonic Minor Scale 7.4 Exercises: Harmonic Minor Scale 7.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Melodic Minor Scale Intervals from Tonic; Major and Minor Thirds, Perfect and Augmented Fourths 7.6 Symbolic Association: Melodic Minor Scale 7.7 Tonal and Melodic Patterns: Melodic Minor Scale 7.8 Exercises: Melodic Minor Scale 7.9 Exercises: Intervals in Tonic Triad (i) and Mediant Triad (III)/Relative Major 8. Major and Minor Modes; Compound Meters -- Dotted Quarter = Beat Unit 8.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major Mode 8.2 Symbolic Association: Major Mode 8.3 Melodic Patterns: Major Mode 8.4 Exercises: Major Mode 8.5 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Minor Mode 8.6 Symbolic Association: Minor Mode 8.7 Melodic Patterns: Minor Mode 8.8 Exercises: Minor Mode 8.9 Exercises: Intervals in Tonic Triad (i) and Major Triad (III)/Relative Major 9. I and V7 in Major Mode; Simple and Compound Meters 9.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Dominant Triad, Major Mode Chromatic Scale, Ascending and Descending Intervals Moving Out From the Tonic in the Major Scale, Dominant Triad, First Inversion Triads Built on Each Degree of the Major Scale 9.2 Symbolic Association: Dominant Triad, Major Mode Chord Tone, Neighbor Tone, Passing Tone 9.3 Tonal Patterns: Dominant Triad, Major Mode 9.4 Exercises: Dominant Triad, Major Mode, Simple Meters 9.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Dominant Seventh Chord, Major Mode Dominant Seventh Chord, Third Inversion, Second Inversion Triads Built on Each Degree of the Major Scale 9.6 Symbolic Association: Dominant Seventh Chord, Major Mode 9.7 Tonal Patterns: Dominant Seventh Chord, Major Mode 9.8 Exercises: Dominant Seventh Chord, Major Mode, Simple Meters 9.9 Exercises: Dominant and Dominant Seventh, Major Mode, Compound Meters 10. i and V7 in Minor Mode; Simple and Compound Meters 10.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Dominant Triad, Minor Mode Ascending and Descending Intervals Moving Out from the Tonic in the Natural Minor Scale, Dominant Triad in Minor, First Inversion Triads Built on Each Degree of the Minor Scales 10.2 Symbolic Association: Dominant Triad, Minor Mode 10.3 Tonal Patterns: Dominant Triad, Minor Mode 10.4 Exercises: Dominant Triad, Minor Mode, Simple Meters 10.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Dominant Seventh Chord, Minor Mode Dominant Seventh Chord, Third Inversion, Second Inversion Triads Built on Each Degree of the Minor Scale 10.6 Symbolic Association: Dominant Seventh Chord, Minor Mode 10.7 Tonal Patterns: Dominant Seventh Chord, Minor Mode 10.8 Exercises: Dominant Seventh Chord, Minor Mode, Simple Meters 10.9 Exercises: Dominant and Dominant Seventh, Minor Mode, Compound Meters 11. I and V7 in Major Mode; Other Rhythms in Simple Meters 11.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major Mode Chromatic Intervals 11.2 Symbolic Association 11.3 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Triplets, Tonic Only 11.4 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Syncopation, Tonic Only 11.5 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Subdivided Beat, Tonic Only 11.6 Exercises: Combined Rhythms, Tonic Only 11.7 Exercises: Combined Rhythms, Tonic and Dominant 12. i and V7 in Minor Mode; Other Rhythms in Simple Meters 12.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Minor Mode 12.2 Symbolic Association 12.3 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Triplets, Tonic Only 12.4 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Syncopation, Tonic Only 12.5 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Subdivided Beat, Tonic Only 12.6 Exercises: Combined Rhythms, Tonic Only 12.7 Exercises: Combined Rhythms, Tonic and Dominant 13. I and V7 in Major and Minor Modes; Half Note = Beat Unit 13.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major and Minor Modes 13.2 Symbolic Association 13.3 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic Only 13.4 Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic and Dominant 13.5 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic Only 13.6 Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic and Dominant 14. I and V7 in Major and Minor Modes; Eighth Note = Beat Unit 14.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major and Minor Modes Ascending and Descending Chromatic Intervals Moving Out From Tonic 14.2 Symbolic Association 14.3 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic Only 14.4 Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic, and Dominant 14.5 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic Only 14.6 Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic, and Dominant 15. I and V7 in Major and Minor; Compound Meters -- More Rhythms 15.1 Integrating Rhythm and Tonal Skills: Major and Minor Modes Major, Minor, Augmented, and Diminished Triads 15.2 Symbolic Association 15.3 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic Only 15.4 Exercises: Major Mode, Tonic and Dominant 15.5 Melodic Patterns and Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic Only 15.6 Exercises: Minor Mode, Tonic and Dominant 16. The Moveable C Clefs 16.1 Symbolic Association C Clefs: Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Baritone 16.2 Exercises: Major and Minor Modes, Tonic and Dominant 17. I, IV, and V7 in Major Mode; Simple and Compound Meters 17.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Sub-Dominant Triad, Major Mode Subdominant Triad in Major 17.2 Symbolic Association 17.3 Tonal Patterns: Subdominant Triad, Major Mode 17.4 Exercises: I, IV, V7, Major Mode, Simple Meters 17.5 Exercises: I, IV, V7, Major Mode, Compound Meters 18. i, iv, and V7 in Minor Mode; Simple and Compound Meters 18.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Subdominant Triad, Minor Mode Subdominant Triad in Minor 18.2 Symbolic Association 18.3 Tonal Patterns: Subdominant Triad, Minor Mode 18.4 Exercises: i, iv, IV, and V7, Minor Mode, Simple Meters 18.5 Exercises: i, iv, IV, and V7, Minor Mode, Compound Meters 19. Other Diatonic Triads and Seventh Chords in Major and Minor Modes 19.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Seventh Chords in Major Mode Seventh Chords 19.2 Symbolic Association 19.3 Tonal Patterns: ii, iii, vi, vii°, Major Mode 19.4 Exercises: ii, iii, vi, vii°, Major Mode 19.5 Building Aural/Oral Skills: Diatonic Seventh Chords in Minor Mode 19.6 Symbolic Association 19.7 Tonal Patterns: ii°, III, VI, VII, Minor Mode 19.8 Exercises: ii°, III, VI, VII, Minor Mode 20. Chromaticism: Nonharmonic Tones 20.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Chromaticism, Nonharmonic Tones 20.1 Symbolic Association 20.2 Tonal Patterns Major Mode Minor Mode 20.3 Exercises 21. Chromaticism: Secondary Dominants 21.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Tonicization, Secondary Dominants 21.2 Symbolic Association 21.3 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Raised Fourth Scale Degree, Major Mode 21.4 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Raised Fourth Scale Degree, Minor Mode 21.5 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Lowered Seventh Scale Degree, Major Mode 21.6 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Raised Tonic, Major Mode 21.7 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Raised Second Scale Degree, Major Mode 21.8 Tonal Patterns and Exercises: Raised Third Scale Degree, Minor Mode 21.9 Exercises: Secondary Dominants and Nonharmonic Tones 22. Chromaticism: Modulation 22.1 Symbolic Association Modulation, Closely Related Keys, Distantly Related Keys, Neapolitan Triad 22.2 Exercises: Modulation to the Dominant 22.3 Exercises: Modulation to Closely Related Keys 22.4 Exercises: Remote Modulation 23. Chromaticism: Modulation 23.1 Building Aural/Oral Skills Modal Mixture, Parallel Scales, Neapolitan Triad 23.2 Symbolic Association 23.3 Patterns: Modal Mixture 23.4 Exercises: Modal Mixture 23.5 Exercises: Neapolitan Triad 24. Modes 24.1 Symbolic Association: Diatonic Seven-Tone Scales Medieval Modes, Church Modes, Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, Locrian 24.2 Exercises Appendix A: Rhythm Reading Systems Overview of Systems Gordon Syllables Takademi Syllables McHose and Tibbs Syllables Kodály Syllables Rhythm Syllable Charts Gordon Syllables Takademi Syllables McHose and Tibbs Syllables Kodály Based Syllables Appendix B: Tonal Reading Systems Solmization Moveable Do Fixed Do Numbers Letter Names Hand Signs Tonal Ladder Appendix C: Dictation System Rhythm Simple Meter Compound Meter Tonal Melodic Appendix D: Conducting Patterns Appendix E: Glossary of Musical Terms Index

Carol Krueger , Director of Choral Studies, Florida Southern College, United States

Carol Krueger received a DMA in Choral Conducting from the University of Miami and has taught in public schools as well as in higher education. An active clinician and guest conductor, Dr. Krueger is widely recognized for her work with music literacy and has presented interest sessions at the American Choral Directors National Convention in New York, the ACDA Southern Division Convention in Nashville, and at MENC and ACDA state conventions throughout the United States.

"I have not yet found a student in my program who did not benefit from Progressive Sight Singing. It contains clear, progressive examples that illustrate concepts from a variety of perspectives, so that no matter how a student learns, this book covers it."--James Wiznerowicz, Virginia Commonwealth University

"The addition of the later chapters on modulation, nonharmonic tones, and the like is a tremendous improvement in this edition and will help both students and instructors alike to coordinate their sight-singing curriculum with their additional music theory studies."--S. Alexander Reed, University of Florida